IAN LANG ELECTRONICS
In this section of the website we have gone in quite some depth into the manufacture of what is known as a monolithic IC. Recent developments have led to film ICs being developed, in which passive components such as resistors and capacitors can be deposited on a glass or ceramic substrate and active ones are added to the substrate to complete circuits. By extension this has led to a promising development in hybrid technology whereby the passive components can be put on to a film and the active on a silicon substrate; this may cut down on the processes for VLSI (very large scale integration) circuits and therefore reduce the time to fabricate and with it the cost.
As semiconductors function by impurities in the crystal it is reasonable to assume that all impurities that are not required should be kept out. This is done by strict atmospheric control in scrupulously clean rooms whereby even the air is constantly filtered through to remove all particles, and the pressure of the air in the rooms is kept above that of the atmosphere so that leaks will cause filtered air to go out rather than unfiltered to come in.
The largest producer of Integrated Circuits in the world is Intel Corporation, based in Silicon Valley, near San Jose in California. Those who are interested in developing a sound commercial knowledge of chip construction are advised to go to their website:
National Semiconductor make an enormous range and their site is fascinating
Fairchild Semiconductor are also worth a visit